Queen Elizabeth II is both Head of State and Head of the Armed Services. When soldiers join the British Army they swear an Oath of Allegiance not to the government of the day, but to the Queen and her successors. However, ultimate authority on the Army’s deployment and use rests with Parliament and ‘the people’.
From the time of the English Civil War (1642-51) the limits of royal authority, and the question of who controlled the Army, were hotly debated. But in 1689 Parliament introduced the Bill of Rights. This withdrew the monarch's right to suspend or implement laws without Parliamentary consent.
It also passed the Mutiny Act, which required annual Parliamentary approval for the continuation of a standing army. To this day, the continuation of the British Army depends on annual Parliamentary consent.
The regiment or corps has always been a key component of the British Army. The regimental system has its roots in the 17th century when aristocrats and professional soldiers were commissioned by the monarch to recruit troops. These men, ranked as colonels, were responsible for raising and equipping their regiments.
On raising a regiment, an oath of allegiance to the monarch would be sworn. In this way the regiment, unlike the Army as a whole, had a direct link to its sovereign. Indeed, the titles of many regiments carry royal connotations.
This close relationship has continued over the years and covers many aspects of army life, including the presentation of Colours.
Colours carried the battle honours of a regiment, awarded by the monarch to commemorate a regiment's bravery on campaign. They remind all ranks of their loyalty and duty to their sovereign.
Most British regiments also have a member of the Royal Family as their colonel-in-chief. Although they have no operational role, they are kept informed of the regiment’s activities, pay visits to deployed troops, send messages of support, attend regimental dinners and take part in ceremonies.
Queen Elizabeth II is colonel-in-chief of 16 British Army regiments and corps, and many Commonwealth units. This position creates a personal link between the regiment and the monarch.
‘There's no way I'm going to put myself through Sandhurst and then sit on my arse back home while my boys are out fighting for their country.’
Prince Harry, 2007
The last British monarch to lead troops in battle was King George II, at Dettingen in 1743. However, many members of the Royal Family have served in the Army since that time.
Prince George, 2nd Duke of Cambridge, a cousin of Queen Victoria, served in the Crimean War (1854-56) and was Commander-in-Chief of the Army for nearly 40 years. Prince Christian Victor, Victoria’s grandson, served on campaign in the Sudan and was an eyewitness of the Battle of Omdurman in 1898.
More recently, the Duke of Kent and Prince Michael of Kent both served as army officers for many years. The Queen herself served in the Auxiliary Territorial Service and Women’s Royal Army Corps in the 1940s.
Prince Harry, the Queen's grandson, is the latest in a long line of royal soldiers. He served in Afghanistan in 2007-08 as a Forward Air Controller, calling in air strikes on insurgent positions and patrolling in hostile territory. He later trained as an Apache helicopter pilot with the Army Air Corps.
Members of the Royal Family support the Army in many different ways. They visit troops on active service, attend inspections and reviews, and serve as patrons of military charities.
They send gifts and messages of support to soldiers overseas. Indeed, the Queen always refers to troops abroad in her Christmas message to the nation.
The practice of Royals visiting troops on active service was started by King George V during the First World War and continues to this day. In 1999, Prince Charles visited troops in Kosovo and in 2010 he went to Afghanistan.
The Royal Family also supports military charities. For example, the Forces in Mind Trust is supported by the Foundation of Prince William and Prince Harry.
Public ceremonial occasions reinforce the links between the Army and the Sovereign. During the Queen’s reign there have been hundreds of such events. The Army has provided guards for royal palaces, and escorts for coronations, royal weddings, and other state occasions.
The Army escorted the carriage at the weddings of Prince Charles and Lady Diana Spencer (1981), and Prince William and Kate Middleton (2011). In the past, the Army also took part in the great spectacles of Empire, such as the State Durbars in India.
When the British ruled India, mass assemblies were held at Coronation Park in Delhi to commemorate the succession of the British monarch as Emperor or Empress of India. These events took place in 1877, 1903 and 1911.
At all three, the monarch, or their representative the Viceroy of India, received homage from the officials of the Raj, and from the Indian ruling princes. Thousands of Indian and British soldiers also attended, taking part in parades and military reviews.
The Queen’s Birthday Parade (Trooping the Colour) is a highlight of the British ceremonial calendar, normally held in London in June each year.
The parade dates back to the 18th century, when the Colours of a unit were 'trooped' - or carried - down the ranks so that they could be seen and recognised by the soldiers. It has marked the sovereign's official birthday since 1748.
The ceremony is carried out by troops from the Household Division - consisting of Foot Guards, The King's Troop, Royal Horse Artillery and the Household Cavalry - on Horse Guards Parade in Whitehall.
The hundreds of soldiers who participate provide not only an impressive public spectacle, but also a reminder of the important link between the Sovereign and the Army.
In 2012, Queen Elizabeth II celebrated her Diamond Jubilee. She became only the second British monarch to celebrate 60 years on the throne, after Queen Victoria.
When Victoria’s Diamond Jubilee occurred in 1897, Britain was the world’s most powerful nation. Her extensive empire was protected by the world’s largest navy and an army of over 250,000 soldiers.
When Queen Elizabeth came to the throne in 1952, Britain still ruled a large empire and the Army’s National Servicemen served in nearly all corners of the world.
During the course of her 60-year reign, Britain’s empire has become a Commonwealth of independent nations, and Britain itself a multicultural society.
But one thing has not changed: the personal connection between the British Army and its Sovereign. These are still the Sovereign’s soldiers.